International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences
Year : 2018 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 332-339
Embryonic and larval development of angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare) with reference to feeding strategy
A. Hyder Ali and K. Altaff
Received on: 12/11/2017
Revised on: 04/28/2018
Accepted on: 04/30/2018
Published on: 08/06/2018
A. Hyder Ali and K. Altaff ( 2018).
Embryonic and larval development of angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare) with reference to feeding strategy. International Journal of Zoology and Applied Biosciences, 3( 4), 332-339.
click to view the cite format
Ornamental fish industry in India is making good progress in breeding, farming and trade in the recent years. The trade of ornamental fishes which was earlier practiced as cottage is now well organized as a corporate industry for domestic and international markets. Considering the importance of angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare) in the domestic market, this fish was selected for present study to provide knowledge on their breeding, spawning, larval development and nutritional requirements. The eggs of this species measure 1.5 ± 0.03 mm. Fertilized eggs are grayish in colour, while unfertilized eggs are whitish in nature. Duration of embryonic development of angel fish is 48 hours. The newly hatched out larvae of angel fish settle at the bottom and exhibit demersal habit for 2 days and utilize nutrients from the reserved yolk. The larvae begin exogenous feeding from 3 dph onwards. The larval development of angel fish includes 1. Endogenous feeding stage, 2. Endo-exogenous feeding stage and 3. Exogenous feeding stage. The yolk sac stage falls within the Endogenous and Endo-exogenous feeding stage. The duration of the Endogenous, Endo-exogenous and Exogenous feeding stages in angel fish is 1–2, 3–5, 6–22 dph, respectively. At 22 dph the larvae undergo drastic changes in their morphological characters which transform them in to juvenile stages. Ontogenetic development of angel fish larvae indicate that there is synchronized development of sense organs, swimming structures, digestive tract and respiratory structures in accordance with the requirements of the different larval stages.
Ornamental fish, Pterophyllum scalare, Breeding, Development.